Climate change mitigation definition pdf

Climate change mitigation definition pdf

This glossary defines some specific terms as the Lead Authors intend them to be interpreted in the context of this report.

Blue, italicized words indicate that the term is defined in the Glossary.

What is climate change mitigation?

In: Global Warming of 1. Zhai, H. Roberts, J. Skea, P. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Pidcock, S. Connors, J. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield eds. In Press. There is no single 1. Within the 21st century, several aspects play a role for the assessment of risk and potential impacts in 1.

Beyond the 21st century, several elements of the climate system would continue to change even if the global mean temperatures remain stable, including further increases of sea level. The extent to which a policy or system change is evaluated unfavourably or favourably, or rejected or supported, by members of the general public public acceptability or politicians or governments political acceptability.

In human systemsthe process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. Adaptation that maintains the essence and integrity of a system or process at a given scale. In some cases, incremental adaptation can accrue to result in transformational adaptation Termeer et al. Adaptation that changes the fundamental attributes of a socio-ecological system in anticipation of climate change and its impacts.

See also Adaptation optionsAdaptive capacity and Maladaptive actions Maladaptation. The array of strategies and measures that are available and appropriate for addressing adaptation.

Mitigation to Climate Change

They include a wide range of actions that can be categorized as structural, institutionalecological or behavioural. See also AdaptationAdaptive capacity and Maladaptive actions Maladaptation.The seas are rising. The foods we eat and take for granted are threatened. Ocean acidification is increasing. Ecosystems are changing, and for some, that could spell the end of certain regions the way we have known them.

Aerosols are small suspended particles in a gas. Scientists can detect them in the atmosphere. They range in size from one nanometer one billionth of a meter to micrometers one millionth of a meter. Aquaculture uses a body of water for the cultivation of plants and animals.

Compare to agriculture, which uses land to cultivate plants and animals. Ponds, lakes, rivers, and the ocean serve as places to breed, rear and harvest aquatic species. Arctic sea ice is an integral part of the Arctic Ocean and an important indicator of climate change. Biofuels are renewable fuels derived from biological materials, such as algae and plants, that can be regenerated.

This distinguishes them from fossil fuels, which are considered nonrenewable. Example of biofuels are ethanol, methanol and biodiesel. Biological productivity is a measure of the amount of plant and animal growth in a defined region and time.

Carbon is a configuration of molecules and an elemental building block of all organisms on Earth. Carbon cycle describes the process by which living things absorb carbon from the atmosphere, sediments and soil, or food. To complete the cycle, carbon returns to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide or methane by respiration, combustion or decay. Carbon dioxide is the gas that accounts for about 84 percent of total U.

In the U. Combustion can be from mobile vehicles or stationary sources power plants. As energy use increases, so do carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon sequestration is the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in a fixed molecule in soil, oceans or plants. An organism or landscape that stores carbon is called a carbon sink. An organism or landscape that emits carbon is called a carbon source. For example, soils contain inorganic carbon calcium carbonate and organic carbon humus and can be either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide, depending on how landscapes are managed.

Because large amounts of carbon are stored in soils, small changes to soil can have major impacts on atmospheric carbon dioxide. Climate change adaptation refers to the adjustments societies or ecosystems make to limit the negative effects of climate change or to take advantage of opportunities provided by a changing climate. Adaptation can range from farmers planting more drought-resistant crops to coastal communities evaluating how best to protect themselves from sea level.Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit global warming and its related effects.

Due to massive price drops, wind power and solar photovoltaics PV are increasingly out-competing oil, gas and coal [5] though these require energy storage and improved electrical grids. Once that low-emission energy is available, transport and heating can shift to these mostly electric sources. Mitigation of climate change may also be achieved by reforestation and forest preservation [3] and the enhancement of carbon sinks. Methane emissions can additionally be targetted by reductions in cattle and more generally by less meat consumption.

Political and economical responses include carbon taxes and other emission pricing models, abolishing fossil fuel subsidiessimplified regulations for the integration of low-carbon energy and divestment from fossil fuel finance. With the Special Report on Global Warming of 1. The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions does not appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.

The UNFCCC aims to stabilize greenhouse gas GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level where ecosystems can adapt naturally to climate change, food production is not threatened, and economic development can proceed in a sustainable fashion.

The IPCC works with the concept of a fixed carbon emissions budget. If emissions remain on the current level of 42 Gt CO 2the carbon budget for 1.

As of the year many scientists think that if emissions will be reduced to zero, the warming will stop in 10 - 20 years. This is very different from the scientific opinion before.

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The reason is that previous models did not take into account that possibility. CO 2 emissions by fuel type [26]. Their global warming potential GWP depends on their lifetime in the atmosphere.

Estimations largely depend on the ability of oceans and land sinks to absorb GHGs. The risk of feedback effects in global warming leads to high uncertainties in the determination of GWP values. GHG emissions are measured in CO 2 equivalents. Short-lived climate pollutants SLCPs persist in the atmosphere for a period ranging from days to 15 years as compared to carbon dioxide which can remain in the atmosphere for millennia.

climate change mitigation definition pdf

Cutting SLCPs may also reduce the rate of global warming and the projected Arctic warming by two-thirds. Emissions in were estimated at It is estimated that the global warming potential of N 2 O over years is times greater than CO 2.

They are used by switchgear in the power sector, semi-conducture manufacture, aluminium production and a large unknown source of SF 6. Projections of future greenhouse gas emissions are highly uncertain. As the cost of reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector appears to be lower than in other sectors, such as in the transportation sector, the electricity sector may deliver the largest proportional carbon reductions under an economically efficient climate policy.

Economic tools can be useful in designing climate change mitigation policies.

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Methane emissions may be reduced by controlling fugitive emissions from oil and gas production and controlling emissions from coal mining. Black carbon emissions may be mitigated by upgrading coke ovens, installing particulate filters on diesel-based engines and minimizing open burning of biomass.

Continued phase down of manufacture and use of hydroflourocarbons HFCs under the Montreal Protocol will help reduce HFC emissions and concurrently improve the energy efficiency of appliances that use HFCs like air conditioners, freezers and refrigerators. Other frequently discussed efficiency means include public transport, increasing fuel economy in automobiles which includes the use of electric hybridscharging plug-in hybrids and electric cars by low-carbon electricitymaking individual changesand changing business practices.

Replacing gasoline and diesel vehicles with electric means their emissions would be displaced away from street level, where they cause illness.

Another consideration is how future socioeconomic development proceeds. As most greenhouse gas emissions are due to fossil fuels, rapidly phasing out oil, gas and coal is critical.Climate change mitigation is achieved by limiting or preventing greenhouse gas emissions and by enhancing activities that remove these gases from the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases can come from a range of sources and climate mitigation can be applied across all sectors and activities.

These include energy, transport, buildings, industry, waste management, agriculture, forestry, and other forms of land management. It takes both a near-term perspective relevant to decision-makers in government and the private sector and a long-term perspective that helps identify how high-level climate policy goals might be met.

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Working Group III addresses all aspects of mitigation including technical feasibility, cost and the enabling environments that would allow measures to be taken up.

Enabling environments cover policy instruments, governance options and social acceptability. Synergies and trade-offs with adaptation measures are of increasing interest as are co-benefits, risks and links to sustainable development.

Bureau members provide guidance to the Panel on the scientific and technical aspects of its work, advise on related management and strategic issues, and take decisions on specific issues such as the selection of authors and review editors. Since the IPCC is an intergovernmental …. Reissued on 13 August to include the role of ex-officio members in the Core Writing Team.

Reissued on 22 ….

climate change mitigation definition pdf

Newsletter Report on first virtual Lead Author Meeting. Special Report Global Warming of 1. Reissued on 22 … July Priyadarshi R.

Nagmeldin G. Mahmoud Vice-Chair Sudan. Carlo Carraro Vice-Chair Italy. Amjad Abdulla Vice-Chair Maldives. Minal Pathak Senior Scientist India. Shreya Some Scientist India. Purvi Vyas Science Officer India. Your message Message. Search for:. Working Groups. Open survey.NASA is a world leader in climate studies and Earth science. While its role is not to set climate policy or prescribe particular responses or solutions to climate change, its purview does include providing the robust scientific data needed to understand climate change.

NASA then makes this information available to the global community — the public, policy- and decision-makers and scientific and planning agencies around the world. Climate change is one of the most complex issues facing us today. It involves many dimensions — science, economics, society, politics and moral and ethical questions — and is a global problem, felt on local scales, that will be around for decades and centuries to come.

Carbon dioxide, the heat-trapping greenhouse gas that has driven recent global warming, lingers in the atmosphere for hundreds of years, and the planet especially the oceans takes a while to respond to warming. So even if we stopped emitting all greenhouse gases today, global warming and climate change will continue to affect future generations. How much climate change?

That will be determined by how our emissions continue and exactly how our climate system responds to those emissions. Despite increasing awareness of climate change, our emissions of greenhouse gases continue on a relentless rise.

Inthe daily level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere surpassed parts per million for the first time in human history. The last time levels were that high was about three to five million years ago, during the Pliocene Epoch. Because we are already committed to some level of climate change, responding to climate change involves a two-pronged approach:. Adaptation — adapting to life in a changing climate — involves adjusting to actual or expected future climate.

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The goal is to reduce our vulnerability to the harmful effects of climate change like sea-level encroachment, more intense extreme weather events or food insecurity.

It also encompasses making the most of any potential beneficial opportunities associated with climate change for example, longer growing seasons or increased yields in some regions.

Throughout history, people and societies have adjusted to and coped with changes in climate and extremes with varying degrees of success. Climate change drought in particular has been at least partly responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Modern life is tailored to the stable climate we have become accustomed to. As our climate changes, we will have to learn to adapt.

The faster the climate changes, the harder it could be. While climate change is a global issue, it is felt on a local scale. Cities and municipalities are therefore at the frontline of adaptation.

climate change mitigation definition pdf

In the absence of national or international climate policy direction, cities and local communities around the world have been focusing on solving their own climate problems. They are working to build flood defenses, plan for heatwaves and higher temperatures, install water-permeable pavements to better deal with floods and stormwater and improve water storage and use.

According to the report on Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability page 8 from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, governments at various levels are also getting better at adaptation.

Adaptation and Mitigation

Climate change is starting to be factored into a variety of development plans: how to manage the increasingly extreme disasters we are seeing and their associated risks, how to protect coastlines and deal with sea-level encroachment, how to best manage land and forests, how to deal with and plan for reduced water availability, how to develop resilient crop varieties and how to protect energy and public infrastructure.

NASA makes detailed climate data available to the global community — the public, policy- and decision-makers and scientific and planning agencies around the world. NASA is one of 13 U. Global Change Research Program, which has a legal mandate to help the nation and the world understand, assess, predict and respond to global change. These U.The UN's climate panel has published the third part of its long-awaited report - on strategies for mitigation.

The document by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC considers the options for limiting or preventing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing activities that remove them from the atmosphere. The term mitigation refers to efforts to cut or prevent the emission of greenhouse gases - limiting the magnitude of future warming.

It may also encompass attempts to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. It differs from climate change adaptation, which refers to the actions taken to manage the unavoidable impacts of climate change. Adaptation is dealt with in the IPCC's working group 2 report. Mitigation may require us to use new technologies, clean energy sources, change people's behaviour, or make older technology more energy efficient.

Switching to low-carbon energy sources such as wind power, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric or nuclear represents one of the major strategies for lowering the emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The take-up of renewable energy - from sources that do not deplete over time - is growing.

Figures from the UN show that renewable energy raised its share of total energy generation last year from 7. These technologies still face barriers related to capital costs the upfront costs of building the plant and maintaining itfinancing, public perception and a longstanding dependence of markets and institutions on fossil fuels.

But the IPCC's third report says many renewable energy technologies have made progress in both performance and cost and that their role in reducing air pollution and providing energy security outweighs possible disadvantages.

But technologies such as carbon capture and storage CCS could help reduce their impact. One form of CCS involves chemically capturing the carbon dioxide from a power station flue, and then piping it underground so that the invisible gas is contained in rock formations without leaking. Existing oil fields, un-mineable coal seams and underground salty aquifers are all among the geological sites that are considered suitable for CO2 storage.

But while CCS could, in theory, limit the amount of carbon going into the atmosphere, it doesn't do much for the CO2 already there. Greening urban areas can also make a difference. Retro-fitting buildings to make them more energy efficient and cutting the impact of transport emissions represent some of the strategies for doing this.

Tackling waste is also an issue. About Experts would like to reduce its impact primarily by producing less but also recycling more and treating waste in a way that is less harmful to the environment or even using it as a sustainable energy fuel source. Mitigation also extends to the protection of natural carbon "sinks" like the forests or oceans. New sinks can be created through, for example, forest regeneration.

Geo-engineering is one controversial area that has gathered momentum in recent years. It requires the deliberate intervention in the climate system with the aim of curbing global warming. This could be done by pumping sulphur aerosols into the high reaches of the atmosphere, where they would have similar reflective properties to the ash released naturally by volcanoes.

As the name suggests, this would combine the burning of biomass, such as wood, for energy and then piping the CO2 into rocks. In theory, you could begin to remove emissions that have already been accumulated in the atmosphere. But critics of this approach warn that the technology is unproven and could give reluctant countries an excuse not to cut emissions.

World must end 'dirty' fuel use - UN.

climate change mitigation definition pdf

What is climate change mitigation? Which energy technologies can help? How else can we help curb climate change? What other options are there? Related Topics. Climate change.

More on this story. Published 13 April This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. In collaboration with. This activity is part of the Climate Change Challenge unit. Show a video to help students explore the impacts of climate change on human communities.

Facilitate discussion of climate change mitigation using examples from videos. Facilitate discussion of climate change adaptation using examples from videos. There are two main ways that humans can address climate change: mitigation and adaptation. In contrast, adaptation involves responding to changes that are already occurring. Examples of mitigation strategies include switching to green energy sources and cutting back on emissions with more energy-efficient technologies.

Examples of adaptation strategies include building seawalls to combat increased storm surges, often associated with sea level rise, and improving emergency response systems to handle extreme weather events. Ultimately, both mitigation and adaptation will be critical elements of the human response to climate change.

Some of the most effective individual strategies to reduce climate change involve diet, transportation, and energy use. However, there are also important group strategies at the local, state, and national levels that can have widespread impacts with regards to these same habits.

For example, governments can fund research into cleaner, more efficient energy technology, or regulate emissions standards for vehicles. Cities and towns can promote food recycling programs, such as composting. Because climate change is an international problem, it will ultimately require global cooperation to address.

An adaptation is passed from generation to generation. Step 1: If the site hosting the Dear Matafele Peinem video is blocked within your school, consider using the encyclopedic entries for Climate Refugees and Environmental Refugee to help students begin understanding the human impact of climate change felt across the world. The video and resource linked here can help you adapt this vocabulary-building tool to meet the needs of your students.

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Emily Jacobs-Palmer, Ph. Gina Borgia, National Geographic Society. Alexandra M. Tyson Brown, National Geographic Society.

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